Direct indirect dating archaeology Creditcards xxnx

Alluvial chronostratigraphy constrains the burial and exhumation of the alcove containing the panel, and limits are also set by our related research dating both a rockfall that removed some figures and the rock’s exposure duration before that time.

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The many figures of the Great Gallery are arranged along the nearly 100-m length of a sandstone alcove, anchored by the distinctive “Holy Ghost and his attendants” (see Fig. Barrier Canyon rock art is commonly interpreted as shamanistic (20, 21), although this is contested (22). In the San Juan River drainage to the southwest, there are several Basketmaker II (early farmers, 1500 B. On the other hand, as BCS rock art has been increasingly documented, variability in the style has increased, with Cole (24) identifying seven variants.

Similarity to other neighboring, potentially contemporaneous, styles most notably includes the Esplanade style of Grand Canyon (ref. Panels are often located in prominent view along the walls of major canyons and generally afforded exclusive locations where superposition by later styles was avoided.

However, BCS art commonly shows modification and embellishment over time, and Cole (20) argues that this shows the panels were not “frozen in time.” BCS art may in fact span considerable time and cultures, but the ability to test such ideas hinges upon building directly dated chronologies.

Location of the Great Gallery study site near the geographic center of the region of BCS rock art (tinted in red and modified from ref.

Among the latest applications of OSL are techniques dating the outer surfaces of rock clasts that have become shielded from light, including those with archaeological context (12–15).

Recent work has furthermore used the “bleaching” profile of decreasing luminescence signal toward the surface of rock to estimate exposure time to sunlight (16, 17).

Rock art is a record with the potential to provide unique insight into the dynamics and evolution of culture, but it generally lacks stratigraphic or chronologic context.

Interpretation of the origin and meaning of rock art is indirect at best, or simply speculative.

Key physical relations between the famous Great Gallery rock art panel in Utah, stream deposits, and a rockfall that removed some art, allow us to disprove all but a late Archaic hypothesis for the age of this type section of the Barrier Canyon style.

Use of a new luminescence profile technique on the same rockfall furthermore outlines a window of time A. ∼1 to 1100 when the figures could have been painted, generally more recent than expected.

Our study illustrates novel and widely applicable approaches for dating rock art that do not require destructive sampling, and results suggest that Barrier Canyon rock art persisted across the transition from the late Archaic into the agrarian Fremont culture in the American Southwest.

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