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The economy is still controlled by a wealthy landowning caste (1 percent of the population still owns 40 percent of the arable land).
The civil war in the 1980s led to a huge population upheaval, with up to 40 percent of the population relocating and close to 20 percent leaving the country.
Mountains separate the country into the southern coastal belt, the central valleys and plateaus, and the northern mountains.
These regions have created slight cultural variations because of the different crops grown in each one.
In 1833, an Indian rebellion of indigo sowers and cutters led by Anastasio Aquino demanded distribution of land to the poor and the just application of the penal laws, the only laws applied to the poor. Thousands of rural peasants were displaced as new laws incorporated their lands into large "modern" coffee plantations where peasants were forced to work for very low wages.
This created a coffee oligarchy made up of fourteen families.
In 1823, José Manuel Arce's army was defeated by the Mexicans.
However, in February of that year, a revolution in Mexico ousted the emperor, and a new congress granted independence to the Central American provinces.
The encomienda system obliged Indians to work for the Spanish in order to pay a large tax.
At the top of the colonial hierarchy were the Peninsulares , Spaniards born in Spain.
Some remnants of the Pipil language remain in everyday Salvadoran Spanish. The flag consists of two blue horizontal stripes with a white stripe in the middle.
In the center is a coat of arms inscribed "1821," the year of independence.
Very few Salvadorans now speak the indigenous language, which virtually disappeared after 1932, when General Maximilio Hernández Martínez suppressed rural resistance by massacring 30,000 mostly Indian rural peasants.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating